Nobility, Heraldry and the Order of Saint Lazarus
What does it mean to be a noble?
Nobility is, historically, a legally defined status, largely inherited once acquired, and enjoying once extensive privileges which, in modern Europe, have been reduced (except see British sub-FAQ) to nominal membership in the noble class with or without a hereditary title in, e.g., BeNeLux, Denmark, Spain and Sweden. The nobility has been abolished, with varying degrees of governmental tolerance for continued use of once noble attributes, in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Italy and Portugal. Titles (not nobility) are recognized and protected in France. Titles exist as part of the surname in Germany. Titles are not indigenous to or not permitted in Austria, the Balkans, Greece, Norway, Poland, Switzerland or former constituent states of the Soviet Union.

The most common titles associated with nobility in Europe were, in descending order Prince, Duke, Marquis, Count, Viscount, Baron, Knight and Noble, although some countries had more titles, some fewer. In Belgium, France, Portugal and Spain peers were the category of highest nobles; although most dukes were peers, some peers held lower titles.

Except for peers, titles indicated official rank, but not substantially different privileges. In fact, the majority of Europe's nobles never held hereditary titles. Even in countries where many did, it was often the longevity of a family's membership in the noble class and/or history of court/military service and/or wealth which was of greater importance in assessing its status than any legal title.

Evaluating titles across boundaries is virtually impossible, not only because they were bestowed more liberally in some countries than in others, but because their rules of descent and attached privileges also varied.

In France, Portugal, Scandinavia and Spain, the rank of prince was limited to members of the reigning dynasty, but the title was also sometimes borne by non-royal nobles in the Balkan countries, Bohemia, France, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Russia. In Scandinavia, "duke" usually implies royal kinship and in Germany, semi- sovereign rank, but until the 16th century, dukes were mostly great land-owning nobles in France, Italy, Portugal and Spain who often were equal to or outranked princes, especially in Italy.

Counts, were originally companions of or regional governors appointed by the Holy Roman Emperor or by kings. In Germany many of these "grafen" retained semi-sovereign status (Reichsstand), acknowledging only nominally the authority of the Emperor and inflating their dignity with prefixes (e.g. margrave, landgrave, palsgrave, etc.) and their number by eschewing primogeniture. But most European counts were vassals of greater princes, even within the Empire (i.e. Austria, Bohemia, Hungary, northern Italy and Poland) where titles were mostly granted by the Emperor until the 19th century, transmissible to males and females through the male line. 

It was not rare for sovereigns to grant hereditary titles to subjects of other realms, which honors conferred no legal rank in the recipient's country. That did not stop the Emperor from living in Vienna while making princes or counts of Bohemians, Dalmatians, Hungarians, Lithuanians and Poles. (Nearly all titles of baron in Poland were foreign.) The King of Spain recognized only his heir apparent as a prince in Madrid, but he created scores of them in Naples and Sicily and dozens more in Belgium.

In Scandinavia, there were few counts before the 17th century. In Russia, there weren't any counts until Peter the Great's reign from 1682 to 1725. Countships and baronies were distributed more sparingly in the North, sometimes descending to all children and sometime by masculine primogeniture.

In Latin countries, the titles of Marquis, Count, Viscount and Baron descended according to primogeniture, although in Italy some also descended to the entire male-line. In Spain, Marques was the most common title; in Portugal, Vizconde; and in Italy, Conte.

The Spanish grandee is equivalent to the French peer, ranking above all other Spanish nobles regardless of title. But Spain is unique inasmuch as men are far less favored over women than in most nobilities. Titles descend to daughters or sisters before being heritable by more distant male kinsmen. A holder of multiple titles is not bound by primogeniture, but may distribute them among children. The husband of a duquesa or vizcondesa is a duque or vizconde.

Below the rank of baron, in Germany, Austria and Hungary there was the knight (Ritter), lord (Herr), nobleman (Edler) and untitled noble who usually took the predicate "von" or the higher one of "zu" which implied continued possession of the family seat. Note that lord (Herr) was used as a title, especially in Bohemia, but for many years it was just a designation of an untitled noble. The Netherlands has the Jonkheer (strictly speaking a predicate rather than a title) below the Ridder, while Belgium has the chevalier. It is important to note that knights of various continental crusading Orders, such as the Order of Saint Lazarus, have no connection whatsoever to the hereditary knights created by the sovereigns. 

Italy's lower titles are Cavaliere, Nobili, Patrician and Coscritto. Hungary, Bohemia and Poland all have Counts but nearly all titles of baron were foreign. Russia had princes and counts, and hundred of barons. Ranking below them were the dvorianstvo (untitled nobles). 

Can a membership in the Order of Saint Lazarus elevate a person to the status on nobility?
No. The Grandmasters of the MHOSLJ doesn't have the "Royal Prerogative", i.e. he doesn't have the power to bestow any-kin of titles of nobility on anyone.  However, the Order of Saint Lazarus is traditionally a nobiliary Christian chivalric service Order. That means that those who are already of a noble birth are admitted into the Order in a category of Knights of Justice. However, sometimes a deserving persons from non-nobility are invited into the Order to serve and carry for others. They are known as the Knights of Magisterial Grace (Honorary Members). The admission or promotion to any Grade of the Order, or the privileges derived does not confer on any member of the Order any rank, style, title, dignity, appellation or social precedence. In other words, a membership in the Order of Saint Lazarus does not elevate a person to the status of Nobility. It is the means of recognizing one’s outstanding volunteerism or leadership to their community. The membership in the Order of Saint Lazarus within any jurisdiction of the Constitutional Grand Priory of the Carpathian is by invitation only. 
Who is a Spanish Grandee?
Nowadays, all Grandees are of the first class and the designation is purely titular, implying neither privilege nor power. An individual is a Grandee if he holds a Grandeeship (Grandeza de Espańa), regardless of possession of a title of nobility. Normally, however, each Grandeza is granted along with a title, though this was not always the case.

Furthermore, a Grandeza de Espańa is normally awarded along with every ducal title. A peer of any rank outranks a non-peer, even if that non-peer is of a higher grade. Thus, a Baron-Peer would outrank a Marquess who is not a peer.

Who is Vidame?
Vidame, a French corruption of the official Latin term vicedominus ('vice-lord'), was initially a feudal title in France. The vidame was originally, like the avoué (advocatus), a secular official chosen by the bishop of the diocese, with the consent of the count, to perform functions in the church's earthly interest, canonically incompatible with the clerical state, or at least deemed inappropriate, especially involving violence, even in the service of justice, and to act as protector, rather in the tradition of the Roman Defensores. 

Unlike the advocate, however, the vice-dominus was at the outset an ecclesiastic, who acted as the bishop's lieutenant (locum tenens) or vicar.  But the causes that changed the character of the advocatus operated also in the case of the vidame. 


European Titles of Nobility and Honor

Continental Titles

Continental titles of nobility have evolved since the time of feudalism, when knights came to be regarded as noble and titles became hereditary. Under the Holy Roman Empire a complex nobility, not confined to the territories of the empire, developed; titles were conferred upon many persons outside the imperial boundaries. Most modern titles of nobility in the Western world descended from these Hereditary Western European Titles of Nobility. 

The title count [Fr. comte, Ger. Graf, Ital. conte] comes from the Latin comes, a noble attached to a kingly court and serving as an adviser to the king. The title Graf was taken over by the Holy Roman Empire from Carolingian and Merovingian terms for a noble appointed by the king and having military and legal authority over a certain territory. The creation of border territories (marches) gave rise to the title of Markgraf (in English, margrave); the corresponding French title is marquis, from which the English title marquess is derived. A Landgraf (in English, landgrave) was a count whose territory included a number of fiefs. There was also the title of Pfalzgraf (count palatine; see Palatinate). Herzog (duke) was a title denoting sovereignty over a large territory such as Bavaria or Saxony. After 1806 the title Grossherzog (grand duke) was also used. The title Fürst (prince) was below that of duke; there existed also the title Prinz, which was a courtesy title extended to various persons, notably the sons of a duke or king. Titles in descending order below emperor and king were Herzog; Pfalzgraf, Markgraf, and Landgraf, all of about equal rank; Graf; Baron, Freiherr or Freier (all baron in English); "von" (Baronet) - oldest none title territorial hereditary nobility and Ritter (knight). The prefix Reichs- before any of these titles meant that the holder held the title directly from the emperor, i.e., he was not the vassal of any other lord.

At the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, the German and Austrian nobility retained the titles they had held under the empire. In addition, the male members of the Austrian imperial family were called archdukes, i.e., dukes of the blood royal. This corresponded to the title in the Russian imperial family usually translated as grand duke and in Spain to infante. French titles of nobility in descending order are duc; prince (only a prince of the blood royal was above a duke; an ordinary prince was often the son of a duke and was below a duke), marquis, comte, vicomte, baron, seigneur or sire, and chevalier (knight). The heir to the throne was called the dauphin. Members of the French nobility have no privileges at all, but they retain their titles under the law. In Italy, titles of nobility, in descending order, are duca, principe, marchese, conte, visconte, and barone. In Spain they are duque, principe, marqués, conde, visconde, and barón. In Hungary they are; kiraly (king), herceg (duke), herceg / fejedelem / uralkodó (prince),  gróf (Count),  báró (baron), "von" / úr  / földesúr / lord (baronet - lord), lovag / vitez (knight / chevalier).

English / British Titles

The original and most ancient nobility in England is the territorial or feudal nobility ( known collectively as the "peerage".) This was nobility based on "tenure" or ownership of land. If the land were sold, the noble rank or title went with it. This type of noble title persists to this day in Britain, Ireland and several other European countries. In the feudal system of government that came about in the early middle ages, the king rewarded his most loyal knights, supporters and favourites with landed estates. These estates, or "Honours" as they are known in the British Isles, carried with them various titles of nobility.

William the Conqueror upon taking England in 1066 proceeded to reward his supporters with such gifts of lands. There were feudal baronies. In return each baron owed the king annual tributes or "knights fees". Having to provide the king with a certain number of armed knights to go into battle for the king if needed. There were also a number of other services by which the annual tribute could be paid to the king. Each baron, in turn, usually subdivided his land into Lordships of the Manor. Each Lord of the Manor had to pay annual tribute to the baron immediately above him, just as the baron did to the king. Lords of the Manor are not considered noble rank, rather they are "landed gentry".  

In Ireland, several of the most powerful and rich feudal barons self-promoted themselves to the higher rank of Viscount which the king later recognised officially. 

In Scotland the title of Earl (In the rest of Europe known as Count) was originally a feudal title above a viscount in rank. A very rare few still exist.

Titles in England are, in descending order, prince, duke, marquess, earl, viscount, baron, baronet, and knight. All have evolved since the Norman Conquest except earl, which is a title of the same descent as the continental titles translated as count. The title of earl was long the highest-ranking hereditary title under that of king, and English earls under the Norman kings enjoyed great power. The title of duke was in use on the Continent long before its introduction into England by Edward III, who created his son, the Black Prince, duke of Cornwall, a title now belonging automatically to the sovereign's eldest son from his birth. The Norman kings were themselves dukes of Normandy, a very high-ranking title, and may have been reluctant to confer similar titles upon their subjects. Originally, in fact, the only English dukes were dukes of the blood royal, and the sons of the sovereign are generally created dukes soon after coming of age. The title of marquess came into English use in 1385 as a title between those of earl and duke. The title of viscount, formerly that of a county sheriff, became a degree of honor and was made hereditary in the reign of Henry VI. Baron, originally a title denoting the chief tenants of the land, who were subject to summons to the king's court, is the most general title of nobility; since 1387 the title has usually been created by a legal notice (generally by letters patent, but occasionally by writ of summons), and it has nothing to do with land tenure. The existing baronetage (below the peerage) dates from 1611, when James I revived the title. The title of baronet is not in the peerage but is heritable; that of knight is a title of honor rather than nobility. The title of prince of Wales, at first the only prince in England, is reserved for the eldest son of the sovereign, although not invariably conferred upon him. In the reign of James I, all the sons of the sovereign came to be called prince. Queen Victoria extended the title, along with that of princess, to the royal grandchildren who are children of sons.

During the later Middle Ages life peerages (i.e., nonhereditary titles) were sometimes given as a further honor to one already holding a title. Legislation in 1887 conferred life peerages on all present and former lords of appeal. The Life Peerages Act of 1958 allowed for the creation of life peerages, with the right to sit and vote in the House of Lords, for both men and women. Since 1964 life peerages have been the only kind conferred.


The Honorary or "Parliamentary" Nobility

The rise of Parliament in Britain and Ireland and the decline and final demise of feudalism from the 1600's through the 1700's throughout Europe saw a new kind of nobility emerge. This was the strictly honorary nobility or "parliamentary peerage" of the United Kingdom and Ireland. These were titles not based on land tenure and were granted purely honorifically without land grants attaching. These could not be sold, but only inherited according to the wishes expressed in the letter of patent creation by the sovereign granting them.

This is the nobility that has prevailed since the 1600's, though it is an outgrowth of the older, original landed feudal nobility. Today, this is the only type of nobility that is ever granted or created. These can be in the form of hereditary peerages of life peerages. This is the nobility that nowadays forms the House of Lords, the upper house of the British parliament. The grant of a title in the UK automatically came with the right to sit and vote in Parliament. 

Non-Western Titles

In the Muslim world the temporal successors of Muhammad received the title caliph (literally, “successor”). Later titles for Muslim rulers were emir and sultan. Other Muslim titles include sherif, a hereditary title; pasha and bey, originally military titles but later given as a civilian nonhereditary honor; and sheikh, a title of respect variously given to tribal chiefs, heads of religious orders and colleges, and town mayors.

Titles in India derive from three sources—Hindu, Muslim, and European—and illustrate the rather tumultuous history of the subcontinent. Raja (ruler or king; maharaja means “great king”), rani (queen), and rajput (king's son, or prince) are of Hindu origin. Nawab is a Muslim title of Hindustani derivation for a nobleman, while nizam is of Arabic origin.

Imperial China made use of over 600 titles beginning with Huang Ti (emperor), Huang How (empress), Huang T'ai How (dowager empress), and so on. Titles of the hereditary imperial nobility conferred on members of the imperial house were of 12 degrees, or lines of descent. These titles were also conferred on the princes and rulers of the Mongol tribes. They were hereditary for a period up to 26 generations. Lesser hereditary ranks of nobility and honorary titles were derived from the feudal order that existed in the 6th cent. B.C. Although they loosely resembled the European scheme—Kung, How, Peh, Tsze, and Nan, corresponding to duke, marquis, earl, viscount, and baron, they were not aristocratic titles in the European sense, as they were granted purely for military services. Titles of honor known as Feng Tseng were conferred as rewards for service or great merit.

The Japanese emperor is sometimes called the Mikado, but this is a term used exclusively by Europeans, except for its use in Japanese poetry. The Japanese have called him the Tenshi (Son of Heaven), Tenno (Heavenly King), Arehito Tenno (God Walking Among Men), Kamigoichinin (Upper Exalted Foremost Being), Aramikami (Incarnate God), and other titles that reflect the traditional belief in his divinity. Through much of Japanese history, the real power rested in the shogun, the commander of the imperial armies. The great feudal vassals were the daimyos, who led retinues of samurai, members of the knightly class. The shogunate came to an end in 1868, giving the real power to the emperor. In 1884, with the feudal order disbanded and all loyalty pledged to the emperor, the holders of ancient titles were given new designations based upon the European system of baron, count, marquees, and so on.




Knights of Order of Saint Lazarus

Historically, and to this day, the Knights of the Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem are admitted into the Order in the following two categories.  

A, - Knights of Justice; a category restricted to  
  members of the Hereditary Nobility. In addition to the regular insignia worn by the members of the Order, the Knights of Justice display on the right side of their chest a Cross of Justice. The Order of Saint Lazarus is a "nobiliary Christian chivalric service Order". However, the  membership in the Order of Saint Lazarus does not creates, or elevate a person into a status of Nobility.  
B, - Knights of Magisterial Grace are honorary  
  members of the Order. These members do not decent from a Noble linage, or were not ennoble during their lifetime by a legitimate ruling monarch.
C, - Ecclesiastical Members of the Order holding 
the rank of a Cardinal within the Holy Roman Catholic Church may be admitted in the category of Justice, as they are by protocol known as "Princes of the Roman Catholic Church".
Companionate of Merit is an internal decoration of the Order and is usually presented to Members of the Order. This category is also open to nonmembers, especially to those meriting well of the Order without distinction of religion, nationality, race, or sex.  The Companionate of Merit may be conferred by the Grand Master  "motu proprio", or by any Heads of Jurisdiction. 
Noble Coat of Arms is a heraldic grant of Arms (Letter of Patent) issued to a person by a "ruling monarchial heraldic authority" which was, or is legally permitted to grand such a Coat of Arms. 
None-Noble Coat of Arms issued by a Constitutional Monarchy.  Majority of these type of Coat of Arms are issued to a recipients as a type of award (a privilege) from a state, on a behalf of a monarch. 
Coat of Arms issued by a State, usually a Republic, other than San Marino. Such Coat of Arms do not elevate a recipient to a Noble status. These type of Coat of Arms are "private label / trade mark" of a person, similar to Coca Cola label, or MacDonald's big "M" label. 
Assumed Coat of Arms issued by a Republic, or any other private heraldic company that is in business of selling and "registering" Coat of Arms. Such Coat of Arms do not elevate a recipient to a Noble status. These type of Coat of Arms are "private label / trade mark" of a person,  similar to Coca Cola label, or MacDonald's big "M" label. 
Heraldry within the Order - Non-armorial members of the Order are able to obtain a personal Coat of Arms from the Order's Herald. These type of Arms is for  members use, and does not bestow on a person any noble status. 
Decoration of the Order of Saint Lazarus - 1 
Decoration of the Order of Saint Lazarus - 2
12th. Century Knight of the Order of Saint Lazarus   



Hungarian Heraldry



The Hungarian Heraldry fall into several groups within three main categories. The first category consist of Coat of Arms granted by the ethnic Hungarian monarchs prior to Angevian accost of Hungary. The second category consist of Coat of Arms issued by the Angevian and other foreign monarchs during their rain in Hungary. And the third category comprises of the Coat of Arms issued to Hungarians during the Habsburg domination. 

It is true that even the early Hungarian Coat of Arms were somewhat different from other western European Arms. But the fact of the matter is that the difference between early European Coat of Arms and the early Hungarian Coat of Arms was not that great.

As already pointed out the changes in Hungarian Heraldry started during and after Angevian period. However, the most notable differences, especially those that are most of the time subject of lively discussion when debating the rules of Hungarian Heraldry, occurred during the Hapsburg period. By knowing this, we should be asking ourselves if the Cost of Arms issued to Hungarians under Hapsburg rule represented truly Hungarian heraldic culture or were intended to distort it or discredit it. The facts indicates that the intend was to distort it and discredit it. 

Without a doubt the relationship between Austrian Hapsburgs and Hungarians was not on a equal footing from the Hapsburgs point of view. The Hapsburgs influence over Hungarians was demonstrated to the Austrians and to the rest of the Europe with a specific tint and ridicule. They simply portrayed the Hungarians as some sort of exotic eastern nomads who needed Hapsburg hand to protect them and the Austrian crown to watch over them. During this period the most effective method to publicly demonstrate and reflected this attitude over the Hungarian elite (the Nobility) was trough the heraldry. Since the office of the Hungarian herald was under the control of Hapsburgs it was a easy task.

Unfortunately, or perhaps fortunately, today when people speak of the Hungarian Heraldry they mostly refer to the period that expresses only these specific differences. 

The Hungarian heraldry from the Hapsburg era is unlike any other style of heraldry anywhere. It flagrantly breaks virtually every heraldic convention. Early Hungarian heraldry (ca. 1400 and before) differs from German heraldry only in the fact that it tends to use more demi-beasts, crowns, and mounts or bases that German heraldry from the same period. Some Hungarian heraldry from this period is very simple. As it should be. For example: Per bend sinister embattled Argent(??) and gules, two roses counterchanged.


  The Hapsburg - Hungarian heraldry ignores the rule of tincture more often than 
    it obeys it. For example:
  • Or, a stork (statant?) argent. Tetenyi (Kapy) 1405
  • Azure, a stork rousant contourny sable beaked and jambed gules crowned and engorged or and maintaining in its beak a snake Or. Somkereki Erdelyi 1415
  • Azure, a castle of three towers gules and issuant from dexter and sinister chief a dexter and sinister arm vested gules issuant from clouds argent maintaining in honor point a crown Or. A Vadkerti, a Pataki Nagy es a Szentgyorgyi Vincze 1415
These examples are not deliberately selected, they represents the majority of Hungarian and Transylvanian Arms in "Die Wappen des Adels in Ungarn - J. Siebmacher's grosses Wapeppenbuch" or any other Hungarian Heraldry records. In  most cases the Hapsburg - Hungarian heraldry ignores the rule of color on color. Sable or dark-colored proper fields are very common, as are gules charges on dark fields. Then of course there is the infamous green mount which occurs less often than one might expect.


Many charges in this type of Hungarian heraldry issue from crowns, lines of 
division or bases. There are a remarkable number of "demi" creatures. In many cases this is because the charges on the shield duplicate the crest which in many cases is a demi-creature issuant from a crown. In other cases the creature emerges from the fess line of a per fess field division or a base.


Most fields in Habsburg - Hungarian heraldry are azure or gules with a 
sprinkling of Or, argent and sable. Vert or purpure fields are never encountered. No field treatments other than barry or bendy are used. There seems to be no use of vair or ermine variant field treatements at all.


Ordinaries are almost never used. When they occur they tend to be fesses or
bends. Chevrons, palls, and palls do not appear. Field divisions tend to be per fess (quite common) or per bend (rarely). Bases are very common.


Charges tend to be a single central charge. When multiple charges occur they
are generally arranged around a large central charge. The arrangements "an X between two Ys" or "an A between in chief two mullets and in base a B" or "an A between in chief a mullet and an increscent and in base a B" are not uncommon. Any other arrangement is unusual.


"Stylized" heraldic charges (maunches, water bourgets, millrinds, etc.) are 
      almost never seen.


Demi-beasts, arms couped at the shoulder (and possibly issuant from clouds),
    creatures arranged so as to "support" or "maintain" a central charge, and human figures occur much more frequently in Hungarian heraldry than in any other national styles. 


Hapsburg - Hungarian heraldry occasionally will use quite complex "picture 
    heraldry", especially in the 16th and 17th centuries. For example:
  • Gules, on a base vert a representation of a Hungarian man passant vested azure armed proper statant upon the body of a turk fesswise vested gules turbaned argent proper and upon the base to sinister a column argent enfiled of a vine vert crowned Or. Szentmartoni, 1549. p. 149


  Animate charges maintaining objects are not uncommon. Animals are also 


  Hungarian heraldry is much more "bloody" than other heraldry. In addition to 
    the various representations of Hungarians killing Turks from 1540 onwards, you also have severed Turks heads, animals pierced by arrows, disembodied arms, human figures brandishing weapons, or occasionally animals attacking other animals.


  Occasionally, this type of Hungarian heraldry arrange charges in peculiar ways. 
    For example there is a device where a dragon is in annulo and another where a ram is eating the plant which forms the primary charge.
The Hungarian heraldry from the Hapsburg era is difficult to blazon. Even at the first look it is very different from the Anglo-Norman and Austrian heraldry, that most people  are familiar with. Many people probably think of it as being "ugly" because of this. However, because of these differences it is worth studying it on its own terms. It presents fascinating challenges to the students of heraldry and an eye-opening inside into the Hungarian history.  


Early ethnic Hungarian Coat of Arms.   





Genus Aba-Rhédey




Early Hungarian Coat of Arms with some German influence.   







Hungarian Coat of Arms issued under Hapsburg rule. 



Rhédey - 1578

Tisza - 1658

Balajhy - 1517



Jókay - 1678 

Forgách - 1525 

Scots call  Robert Dinwiddie's Coat of Arms  "EXTRAORDINARY". 

At this point in history we can't change what has been done to the Hungarian Heraldry by the Hapsburgs during the past centuries. We believe that today the past dubious intend to demean the Hungarian Heraldry by Hapsburgs is backfiring because today the world is in  search of things quirky and unique. And that the Hungarian Heraldry can certainly offer. When we look at the extraordinary arms granted to Robert Dinwiddie on 28th June 1751, perhaps we should be proud of ours as well. Robert Dinwiddie's Coat of Arms are recorded in the Register of All Arms and Bearings of Scotland, volume 1 folio 142 as follows; 

Party per Fesse two landskips the first (the uppermost) holding a wild Indian at full draught his bow bent, marking at a stag standing at full Gaze Regardant proper The Emblem of the Earth, And in base, the Emblem of water with a sloop under sail, within sight of and making towards a distant land Representing America

These are the only arms in volume 1 of the register to feature landscapes as such. They were granted on the eve of Dinwiddie taking up the post of Lt. Governor of Virginia.



Commandery of Slovakia